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ClC ^UOCG^CJ X Collection 
^ C * M ** ' ) INDEX 



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MINISTRY OF 
WORKS 

HISTORY 

/^OITY was one of the greater 
^ lordships held under the Earls of 
Glamorgan. The tradition that 
Payn de Turbeville was one of Fitz- 
hamon's companions in the Con- 
quest of Glamorgan, who received 
Coity as his share of the spoil and 
legitimised his rule by a marriage 
with Sybil, the heiress of the old 
Welsh lords, rests on no secure 
foundation. But as Payn was cer- 
tainly in Glamorgan in 1126 and his 
descendants appear in possession of 
Coity at a later date, there is little 
reason to doubt that the' family 
acquired the lordship early in the 
twelfth century. Sir Gilbert de 
Turbeville, who held the fief about 
the year 1200, married Maud, the 
daughter of Morgan Gam, the Welsh 
lord of Avan. Since the earliest 
stone castle dates from the end of the 
twelfth century, it is probable that 
Sir Gilbert was the builder, a fact 
which may have given rise to the 
story of the earlier marriage. 

In the fourteenth century the male 
line of the Turbevilles became extinct 
and their estates were divided among 
four coheiresses. Under a family 
settlement Coity passed to Sir 
Roger Berkerolles, and, when his 
son died without issue, to Sir Wil- 
liam Gamage. During the lifetime of 
the new owner Glamorgan was 
attacked by the Welsh under Owen 
Glyndwr, who invested the Castle, 
and in 1404 the Commons prayed 



X-DA735 

Ancient MonumentsamTOGstoric Buildings 

COITY CASTLE 

GLAMORGAN 

C. A. RALEGH RADFORD, M.A., F.S.A. 

(Formerly Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Wales) 

Henry IV to arrange for the rescue 
of the Lord of Coity, who was and 
had long been besieged in his castle 
of Coity. The last quarter of the 
sixteenth century saw the death of 
John, the last Gamage to hold the 
lordship. His daughter, Barbara, 
brought the lands to Sir Robert 
Sydney, Earl of Leicester, at their 
marriage in 1585, and the desertion 
and consequent decay of the Castle 
seems to date from this period. 

The masonry of the Castle shows 
four main periods of construction. 
The square keep and the south 
curtain wall belong to the first, 
which must be dated to the end of the 
twelfth century. To the second 
period belongs the projecting 
southern tower which reflects the 
thirteenth century desire for a more 
adequate flanking of the curtain. 
The third constructional period 
covers the fourteenth century, which 
saw an almost complete rebuilding 
of the castle. The heightening of the 
south-west curtain, and the complex 
of buildings extending from the 
chapel to the west gatehouse date 
from this period. The erection of 
the east gatehouse and the present 
northern curtain, the insertion of 
vaulting into the lower stories of 
the Keep, and the enclosure of the 
outer ward also bslong to this 
reconstruction. A considerable part 
of this work, including the buildings 
on the south-west side of the inner 
ward, must date from the earlier 
part of the fourteenth century, and 




MINISTRY OF 
WORKS 



X-DA735 fr o 

Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings 

LLAWHADEN 
CASTLEfT 1 

PEMBROKESHIRE I [ p*Pf~Jl ft 
C. A. RALEGH RADFORD, F.S.A., 

Secretary to the Royal Commission on Ancient Monuments in 
wales and Monmouthshire 



LLAWHADEN 
siastical centre, dependent on 
St. Davids from an early period, 
became one of the richest possessions 
of the Bishops of that See. In 1 1 1 5, 
on the death of Wilfrid, the last 
native bishop, Bernard, a chaplain of 
Queen Matilda, was elected to St. 
Davids, and Norman influence be- 
came predominant. The earliest 
castle, a ring motte, was erected to 
protect these estates ; it is men- 
tioned in about 1175 when Giraldus 
Cambrensis visited his uncle, Bishop 
David Fitzgerald, at Llawhaden. 

The ring motte consisted of an 
earth bank and dry moat enclosing 
an area about 150 feet in diameter. 
The encircling moat remains, but 
the bank has been almost entirely 
levelled and covered with later 
buildings. Originally it would have 
stood to a height of several feet, the 
summit crowned with a wooden 
stockade. Within this enclosure a 
group of timber buildings would 
have formed the residence of the 
Bishop. In 1192 the Welsh ruler, the 
Lord Rhys, captured the Castle, and 
in the following year he razed its 
defences. The foundations of a 
circular tower 28 feet in diameter 
and of a curtain wall aligned in 
short straight stretches and flanked 
by another projecting semicircular 
tower have been discovered on the 
west side of the courtyard. The 
arrangement is typical of the early 
thirteenth century, and it may be 



HISTORY 

an ancient eccle- assumed that the Castle, rebuilt 
when the bishop recovered Llaw- 
haden, was enclosed with a curtain 
following the line of the earlier 
bank and flanked at intervals by 
semicircular towers. 

The election of Thomas Bek in 
1280 initiated a period of lavish 
expenditure during which the chosen 
residences of the bishops were re- 
built on a magnificent scale. The 
present appearance of the ruins at 
Llawhaden is due to this rebuilding, 
during which the castle was trans- 
formed into a great fortified man- 
sion designed to provide the resi- 
dence of a wealthy prelate, quarters 
for a permanent garrison and lodging 
for the important guests whom the 
bishop might be called on to enter- 
tain. The new buildings were 
designed as a series of rectangular 
blocks set around the courtyard. 
The lay-out ignores the circular 
plan of the earlier castle, so that 
some of the towers project into the 
ditch, while others stand on the 
crest of the bank, and the curtain in 
places runs obliquely to the line of 
the moat. 

The new buildings were designed 
as part of a single plan, though 
their erection may have been spread 
over a considerable period. Little 
detail remains, but there is sufficient 
to show that the whole work was 
carried out in the early fourteenth 
century. David Martyn, who held 
the See from 1293 to 1327, was 




MINISTRY OF 
WORKS 



X-Da/35 ^-o 

Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings ) 

DOLBADARN CASTLE 

CAERNARVONSHIRE 
By C. A. RALEGH RADFORD, 

M.A., F.S.A. „ 

(Formerly Inspector of Ancient Monuments foi Walfa) 
HISTORY |Copy„ 



T)OLBADARN Castle, an 
ancient stronghold of Arfon, 
stands on a rock above Llyn 
Padarn, at the north end of the 
Pass of Llanberis. The site com- 
mands an ancient route running 
inland from Caernarvon to the 
upper valley of the Conway. 
Before the construction of the 
modern road, the track ran across 
the mountain above Llanrug, 
avoiding the steep swampy shores 
of the lower lake. After crossing 
the River Hwch at the head of the 
waterfall it descended past the 
castle to follow the shores of the 
upper lake towards Old Llanberis. 
Arfon, the land extending be- 
tween the River Cegin by Bangor 
and the summit of Yr Eifl, was 
a rich district, including Bangor 
and Clynnog, two of the most 
famous shrines in Gwynedd. Its 
men claimed many privileges, 
among them the right of leading 
the vanguard in battle. Their 
earlier centre was at Segontium, 
the hill above Caernarvon, on 
which lie the Roman fort and the 
church of Llanbeblig, and a royal 
residence at Caernarvon is re- 
corded as late as the thirteenth 
century. But the Record of 
Caernarvon, a fourteenth-century 
survey which reflects the arrange- 
ments in force under the last 
native princes, shows that, at 
that date, Caernarvon had been 
largely eclipsed in importance, as 



the tenants of the surrounding 
district of Arfon Is Gwyrfai 
contributed to the maintenance 
of the manor of Dolbadarn and 
not to the older centre. 

The story of Dolbadarn is 
lost. The castle is mentioned in 
no document earlier than the 
English conquest. But the build- 
ing itself affords some clue to its 
development. The masonry is of 
two dates, both older than 1284. 
The early masonry, rubble, ap- 
parently unmortared, is that of 
the curtain wall enclosing the 
summit of the rock on which the 
castle stands. Much of the circuit 
is still covered with fallen debris, 
and no detail is visible, but the 
plan and the character of the 
building suggest a date in the 
second half of the twelfth or 
the early years of the thirteenth 
century. The circular tower, 
which still stands to a height of 
some 40 ft., is of mortared 
masonry. It was added in the 
thirteenth century, probably by- 
Llewelyn Fawr who died in 1240. 
The rectangular tower in the 
centre of the west side, of which 
only the base remains, and probr 
ably other buildings, which can 
be traced within the circuit, are 
also later than the curtain and 
should date from the same period 
as the great tower. 

The death of Llywelyn Fawr, 



X-DA735 c M e , 



( \ 



o 




Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings 

STRATA FLORIDA 
ABBEYf4 jl 




CARDIGANSHIRE 



m 



■■'-- s.. 



MINISTRY OF 
WORKS 



By C. A. RALEGH RADFORD, 

M.A., F.S.A. 

Formerly Inspector ofcAncient ^Monuments for Wales 

HISTORY 



THE ruins of Strata Florida lie on 
the south bank of the Teifi 
above Tregaron Marsh, but tradition 
records an earlier site two miles 
away, near Old Abbey Farm on the 
banks of the Afon Fflur. The field 
is still known as Yr hen Fynachlog, 
the old monastery, and extensive 
foundations were uncovered and 
removed within hying memory. 

In later days both Rhys ap Tewdur, 
Prince of South Wales (1081-93), and 
Rhys ap Gruffydd received the credit 
for the foundation of Strata Florida. 
But the early lists make it clear that 
this foundation took place in June 
1164 and this date suggests that the 
monastery should be identified with 
the unnamed Cistercian house, the 
foundation of which Giraldus Cam- 
brensis ascribes to Robert Fitz 
Stephen. In the summer of 1164 
Robert, a powerful Norman baron 
with extensive possessions in West 
Wales, held this district under the 
great House of Clare. In the 
autumn of that year the Welsh, under 
the Lord Rhys ap Gruffydd, attacked 
the Norman possessions in Cardigan- 
shire ; two years later they had 
conquered the whole district includ- 
ing the Castle of Cardigan and 
Robert himself was a prisoner in their 
hands. 

Hitherto the Welsh, with their 
own traditions of monasticism, had 
regarded the more orthodox orders 



with suspicion, too often finding the 
Norman houses centres of alien 
influence. But the Cistercians, with 
their emphasis on the ideals of 
simplicity and poverty, were more 
likely to appeal to the native tem- 
perament. The Lord Rhys took 
over the foundation of his opponent, 
and the charter of 1184 records that 
he had begun the building of the 
Abbey. 

A short presbytery of two bays, 
almost devoid of ornament, die 
lower part of the crossing and the 
transepts with their eastern chapels, 
which had late Norman capitals, 
were first completed, and this must 
be the Church of which the monks 
took possession in 1201. The nave, 
where the ornament is of a more 
advanced character, may be attri- 
buted to the following twenty-five 
years. The details of the Chapter 
House indicate a date after 1220, 
and the first recorded burial in 1235 
probably marks its completion. The 
fragmentary walls of the western 
range seem to belong to the same 
period. In 1254 the great bell, 
which had been bought for 97 marks 
and two cows, was consecrated by 
the Bishop of Bangor and placed in 
the Church. About the same time 
the presbytery was lengthened by one 
bay. 

The principal endowment of the 
community lay round the Abbey, 




X-DA73.* & r 



H 



Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings J 

TRETOWER CASTLE 



BRECONSHIRE 



MINISTRY OF WORKS 



By 



50 



2 



C. A. RALEGH RADFORD, M.A., F.S.A. 

Formerly Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Wales, and sometime 
Director of the British School at Rome 



HISTORY 



Tretower lies on the north bank 
of the Usk between Abergavenny 
and Brecon, at a point where 
a side road branches off to follow 
the tributary valley of the Rhian- 
goll up to a pass leading to 
Talgarth and the Wye. In the 
Middle Ages the castle, from which 
the name — the place of the tower — 
is derived, was the centre of the 
district of Ystrad Yw or, to give the 
usual official English form, Stradewy. 

The upper valley of the Usk was 
seized by the Normans at the end 
of the eleventh century. Their 
leader, Bernard de Neufmarche, 
established himself at Brecon and 
settled his followers on the sur- 
rounding lands. Among them was 
Picard, to whose share fell a part of 
Ystrad Yw, including the site of the 
castle. The older Welsh settlement 
lay two miles up the Rhiangoll, at 
Llanfihangel Cwmdu, where the 
parish church still remains. But 
Picard chose for his dwelling a site 
in the main valley, controlling the 
junction of the two roads. 

The original castle was placed on 
the main valley floor. Water drawn 
from the Rhiangoll was used to 
strengthen the defences, which were 
enclosed on three sides by ditches 
and stretches of marshy ground. On 
the west stood the motte, a small 
mound surrounded by a ditch and 



revetted with a rough wall of stone. 
This revetment is earlier than the 
building of the mid-twelfth century 
and is apparently an original feature 
necessitated by the soft nature of 
the soil, which would scarcely have 
stood unsupported. The bailey lay 
on the east of the mound. It formed 
an irregular quadrilateral, enclosed 
with a bank and ditch still traceable 
along the line of the later curtain. 
The entrance was placed on the 
east, the only side on which firm 
ground approached the castle. 
Wooden palisades surrounded the 
summit of the motte and crowned 
the bank of the bailey, and the 
buildings within were also of wood. 
The name of Picard, the first 
Norman lord and the builder of 
this castle, appears among the earliest 
list of donors to the Priory which 
Bernard de Neufmarche founded at 
Brecon, the centre of his lordship. 
Picard's gifts were later confirmed 
by his son, Roger, who held Tre- 
tower in the middle of the twelfth 
century. Roger had added to his 
inheritance the neighbouring fief 
of Llansantffraid, which lies a few 
miles higher up the valley of the 
Usk. From him Tretower descended 
to his son John, who again con- 
firmed the gifts which his father and 
grandfather had made to Brecon 
Priory. A John Picard was still at 



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MINISTRY 
OF WORKS 



DEC 231 

Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings 

PENTRE-IFAN # 

BURIAL CHAMBER 

NEVERN, PEMBROKESHIRE 

By W. F. GRIMES, M.A., V-P.S.A., 

Director of the London Museum 



n 



Introduction 

PENTRE-IFAN Burial Chamber, or Cromlech, to use the name 
often applied to this type of monument in Wales, was, with Arthur's 
Stone in Gower, the first burial-chamber to be protected by the 
first Ancient Monuments Protection Act of 1882. The monument 
stands on the upper slopes of the ridge which is crowned by the 
natural rock-outcrops known as Carneddau Meibion Owen and 
commands a wide view over the Nevern Valley, from its source 
practically to its mouth. Pentre-ifan is one of a number of mega- 
lithic tombs in this area ; it is the finest of them, and indeed one of 
the finest in all Wales. 

It will be convenient here to anticipate with one or two definitions 
matters which will be discussed at greater length later in this des- 
cription. Pentre-ifan is a burial monument, a communal tomb, 
one of many introduced by colonists who came to Britain in some 
numbers in the Neolithic period or New Stone Age at a date round 
about 2000 B.C. In its present state it consists of two parts. On 
the north side (down the slope) is a chamber built of upright stones 
supporting a very large capstone ; at its south end the chamber 
has what is usually called a portal : two parallel supporters with a 
third stone between them which does not touch the capstone, 
thus allowing it to be moved without disturbing the rest of the 
structure. Secondly, on the south side several upright stones are 
arranged in a curve on each side of the portal to form a crescentic 
facade which opens up the slope. These features are all incomplete 
at the present time : the sides of the chamber would originally 
have been enclosed by additional uprights and dry walling ; stones 
are missing from the western half of the facade. In addition, it 
is important to remember that the monument was formerly covered 
with a cairn of stones probably completely concealing the chamber. 
The greater part of this must have been removed some centuries 
ago and the stones used for building or roads or similar purposes ; 
but what remains of it beneath the modern turf has been revealed 
by excavation. 



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TJBBAN DISTHICT 

FLINTSHIRE 



Official Guide 



PRICE 1/- 



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RURAL DISTRICT 




OFFICIAL 
GUIDE 

PRICE 6 d 






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DEUDMETH 

RURAL DISTRICT 



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THE OFFICIAL GUIDE 

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KNIGHTON *W 

RURAL DISTRICT 

RADNORSHIRE 







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LIBKAEY OF CONGRE0P 



Official Guide 



PRICE ONE SHILLING 



X-DA'735 



DEUDRAETP 5 

RURAL DISTRICT 

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X-DA735 







HAWARDEN 

RURAL DISTRICT 



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TEIFY CORACLE FISHERMEN 
(Photo by Valentine, Dundee) 



NEWCASTLE 
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RURAL 
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